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True-breeding is a term used to describe a particular characteristic of a species or a strain of an organism where all individuals of that species or strain produce offspring with the same trait when self-fertilized or crossed with another true-breed individual.
In other words, true breeding refers to a population of organisms in which all individuals possess identical homozygous alleles for a particular gene or set of genes. It results in offspring that also have the same trait.
For example, in plants, a true-breeding strain would always produce offspring that have the same flower color or leaf shape as the parent, and this trait would be passed on through generations. In animals, a true-breeding population could be one where all individuals have the same coat color, eye color, or other traits that are genetically determined.
True breeding is an essential concept in genetics, as it allows scientists to study the inheritance of traits in a controlled manner and to predict the outcomes of crosses between different individuals.
The concept of true breeding is important in genetics and plant and animal breeding for several reasons: